"What would life be without friends?"
WHAT IS THE SANGHA?
To clarify, there can be some confusion in the way the Sanskrit
word Sangha is commonly used. In fact, there are three distinct definitions:
1. A currently popular definition is to include all Buddhist practitioners.
2. The most generally applied term includes only the community of ordained
monks and nuns.
3. A more strict definition from the scriptures applies to the practitioners
who have at least directly realised emptiness.
During his life, the Buddha gave advice to many people on
ways to avoid distraction from following the spiritual path. The Buddha
never actually taught "a set" of vows for monks or nuns, but these have been
extracted afterwards by Buddhist Masters from the teachings of the Buddha.
It is important to realise that monasteries and nunneries
have proven to be absolutely essential in preserving the Buddhist teachings
and practice. One could say that monasteries are the "power plants" of the
For Buddhists, the Sangha are spiritual friends, and their importance is explained in the Upaddha Sutta.
"Ven. Ananda said to the Blessed One, 'This is half of the holy life, Lord - admirable friendship.' The Buddha replied, 'Don't say that... Admirable friendship is actually the whole of the holy life. When a monk [or anyone else] has admirable people as friends... he can be expected to develop and pursue the Noble Eightfold Path. …
And through this line of reasoning one may know how admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie is actually the whole of the holy life: It is in dependence on me as an admirable friend that beings subject to birth have gained release from birth, that beings subject to aging have gained release from aging, that beings subject to death have gained release from death, that beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair have gained release from sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair. It is through this line of reasoning that one may know how admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie is actually the whole of the holy life."
SOME GENERAL NOTES ON ORDINATION
Monks and nuns are revolutionaries. They cherish
a great aspiration in their hearts, and that is how they have the
strength to cut the net of worldly attachments. They go forth from
family life to enter the path of the Buddha, and they aspire to love
and help everyone, not just one person. Monks and nuns cherish their
freedom so they can be a source of happiness for many people. Seeing
how much entanglement and suffering there is in this world, they feel
compassion and want to help people who are suffering.
Thich Nhat Hanh from 'Stepping Into Freedom'
A few hints that I found useful to understand being a Buddhist
monk or nun:
- To be a Buddhist, one does not need to be ordained as monk
or nun. Even to become a Buddha, ordination is strictly spoken not necessary
- although it may be very wise to avoid the distractions of a lay person's
- To become a monk or nun, one should at least have taken refuge.
Next, with a limited number of vows (always including celibacy) one can become
a novice. Later, by committing oneself to a very extensive set of vows, one
can become a fully ordained monk or nun.
- A monk or nun is usually not a fully enlightened being. One should consider
this when judging them (a bad habit to begin with). Like everyone of us, they
are usually only trying their best at living a spiritual life and they have
as important task to keep their vows, which is often not easy; criticising
them is easy, but usually not helpful to anyone.
- In general, all traditions use the same sets of vows. Celibacy (no sex)
is always part of the monks and nuns (novice) vows. In traditions where celibacy
is not included in the vows, one can question their origin. It can still be
a set of vows that is worthwhile keeping, but one is not a Buddhist monk or
- Depending on the tradition, the vows are taken for life or any shorter period.
For example, in Thailand it is tradition that virtually all men become novices
and live at a monastery at least for a short period during their youth. In
contrast, in the Tibetan tradition, taking monks or nuns vows is basically
for life, although the vows can be given back if one feels one cannot keep
- It is considered important to try and receive teachings about the vows before
and after being ordained.
- For people wanting to be ordained by His Holiness the Dalai Lama himself,
often a special possibility exists after his Losar teachings (usually end
of February) in Dharamsala, India.
- It may be confusing at times, but not everyone who appears to wear robes
may be a monk or nun. So not everyone who looks like a monk or nun is necessarily celibate or has taken the same vows:
- There are several levels of ordination for monks and nuns, similar to novices and fully ordained such as in the Christian tradion, but on all levels, they have vows of celibacy.
- At some Tibetan monasteries,
lay people can stay and wear similar (though not identical) robes.
- There is a Tibetan tradition of (often
long-haired) Buddhist tantric practitioners; Ngagpa's and Ngagma's, who may wear similar robes. They have taken special sets of vows and can thus be called 'ordained', but they are not celibate monks or nuns.
- There is also a tradition of tantric practitioners in Tibet called Naljorpa's and Naljorma's, who may appear very smilar to Ngagpa's and Ngagma's, but they are not formally ordained.
- In the Japanese Zen tradition, there are people often referred to as monks or nuns, but they have not received the traditional Buddhist monks or nuns ordination; these people could more precisely be called priests, rather then monks.
- In the Theravada tradition, the ordination of women has been lost over time, so you will not encounter nuns. Alternatively, you may encounter women in white robes who have taken extra lay vows.
- In the Tibetan tradition, only the novice ordination of nuns exist, and the full ordination for women is lost. There are however initiatives to revive the full nun ordination via the Chinese tradition.
- Why becoming a monk or nun? Lama
Zopa Rinpoche can answer that better than I ever could.
- This website on
Thailand gives an eleborate description of the traditional Thai ordination
In the 'Mahiparinirvana Sutra', Shakyamuni Buddha gave a number of conditions
the Sangha should fulfil to ensure the welfare and growth of the Sangha, which
I tried to summarise below.
- Assemble frequently and in large numbers
- Meet and disperse peacefully and attend to the affairs of the Sangha
in concord - Appoint no new rules, and do not abolish the existing
ones, but proceed in accordance with the code of training (Vinaya)
- Show respect, honour, esteem, and veneration towards the elder Bhikkhus,
those of long standing, long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of
the Sangha, and think it worthwhile to listen to them
- Do not come under the power of the craving that leads to fresh becoming
- Cherish the forest depths for their dwellings
- Establish themselves in mindfulness, so that virtuous brethren of
the Order who have not come yet might do so, and those already come
might live in peace
Seven further conditions
- Do not delight in, be not pleased with, or be not fond of: activities
- Do not delight in, be not pleased with, and not fond of talk
- Do not delight in, be not pleased with, and not fond of sleep
- Do not delight in, be not pleased with, and not fond of company
- Do not have bad friends, associates, or companions
- Do not harbour and do not come under the spell of evil desires
- Do not stop halfway on account of some trifling achievement.
- Have faith
- Have moral shame
- Have fear of misconduct
- Be proficient in learning
- Be resolute
- Be mindful
- Be wise
Seven factors of enlightenment
- Cultivate mindfulness
- Investigate into phenomena
- Investigate and cultivate energy
- Investigate and cultivate bliss
- Investigate and cultivate tranquillity
- Investigate and cultivate concentration
- Investigate and cultivate equanimity.
Seven further conditions
- Cultivate the perception of impermanence
- Cultivate the perception of egolessness
- Cultivate the perception of (the body's) impurity
- Cultivate the perception of (the body's) wretchedness
- Cultivate the perception of relinquishment
- Cultivate the perception of dispassion
- Cultivate the perception of cessation.
Six Conditions to be Remembered
- Attend on each other with loving-kindness in deed, both
openly and in private
- Attend on each other with loving-kindness in word, both openly and in
- Attend on each other with loving-kindness in thought, both openly and
- Respect of what is received as due offerings, even the contents of their
alms bowls, not make use of them without sharing them with virtuous members
of the community
- In company with their brethren, they train themselves, openly and in private,
in the rules of conduct, which are complete and perfect, spotless and pure,
liberating, praised by the wise, uninfluenced (by mundane concerns), and
favourable to concentration of mind
- In company with their brethren preserve, openly and in private, the insight
that is noble and liberating, and leads one who acts upon it to the utter
destruction of suffering.
Tushita Retreat Centre is making
a habit of organising special teachings for newly ordained Sangha by His Holiness
the Dalai Lama during the Losar teachings in Dharamsala.
More teachings about the Sangha can be found on the FPMT
An extensive (Theravada) view on the life of monks and nuns for lay people
is found on the
Access to Insight website.
The secret of life is honesty and fair dealing .. if you can fake that, you've
got it made.
If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again, it was probably
December 21, 2014